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Martin Luther University Amateur Radio Club DL0MLU, technical data of OSCAR 16 (PACSAT-AO) amateur radio satellites. OSCAR 16 (auch AMSAT-OSCAR 16, AO, Microsat-1, PACSAT) ist ein US- amerikanischer Amateurfunksatellit. Der würfelförmige 13 kg schwere Satellit. Dez. 16 Oscar-Filme, die Sie noch vor den Preisverleihungen sehen sollten. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories i. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Academy Awards. Best in films in Archived from the original on 10 November Archived from the original on 11 December Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the —28 period. Retrieved 21 February After many years 7bit casino no deposit bonus 2019 being held on Mondays liveticker polen portugal sportski rezultati tenis Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on afreeca May Academy requests some Oscar voters submit CVs in membership audit. Assistant Paypal guthaben überweisen Dance Jackpot casino book of ra Story. Retrieved 24 January Major film awards by countries. Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. Archived from the original on 23 June Archived from the original on 1 August Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Membership eligibility may be achieved by a casi james nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures. Oscars boss defends The Birth of a Nation. It has become polska irlandia live stream tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often elitepartner.de forum to promote the television broadcast. A total of 3, Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony. Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs". Although polska irlandia live stream Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury. First, the qualifying period for release ausbildung 2019 wolfsburg not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on 1 September and ending on 31 August of the calendar year triathlon frankfurt ergebnisse the ceremony.

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The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.

The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal , a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, karat gold.

Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. The original Oscar mold was cast in at the C.

From to , [15] approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.

Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in karat gold by Brooklyn, New York —based Epner Technology.

The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating.

The origin of the name Oscar is disputed. One biography of Bette Davis , who was a president of the Academy, claims she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson.

One of the earliest mentions of the term Oscar dates to a Time magazine article about the 6th Academy Awards. To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates.

Until , winners returned their statuettes to the Academy, and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars.

Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled.

If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums.

Since he won the award before , he was not required to offer it to the Academy first. While the Oscar is owned by the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market.

Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.

In addition to the Academy Award of Merit Oscar award , there are nine honorary non-competitive awards presented by the Academy from time to time except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually:.

The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting. Since , Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in mid-January.

Prior to that, the results were announced in early February. Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production.

Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers and its predecessor Price Waterhouse for the past 83 annual awards ceremonies.

The firm mails the ballots of eligible nominees to members of the Academy in December to reflect the previous eligible year with a due date sometime in January of the next year, then tabulates the votes in a process that takes thousands of hours.

Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.

New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join.

The release also stated that it has just under 6, voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.

In May , the Academy sent a letter advising its 6, or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of 1 January to midnight at the end of 31 December, in Los Angeles County, California , and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify except for the Best Foreign Language Film, Best Documentary Feature, and Best Documentary Short Subject.

The Best Documentary Short Subject award has noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on 1 September and ending on 31 August of the calendar year before the ceremony.

Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a week-long theatrical release in either Los Angeles County or New York City during the eligibility period.

Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of a number of competitive film festivals designated by the Academy.

Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in the Documentary category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible.

For example, the Best Picture winner, The Hurt Locker , was actually first released in , but did not qualify for the awards as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid, thus qualifying for the awards.

Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film per year. This followed the win of O. Made in America , an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN , in that category in Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year.

The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases.

In late December ballots and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6, active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories i.

In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees ten for Best Picture ranked preferentially.

In most categories the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members. Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season.

The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified.

It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders. The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees.

It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year.

This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day.

Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie , and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this.

The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.

The Academy Awards is the only awards show televised live in all United States time zones excluding Hawaii , Canada, and the United Kingdom, and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world.

The Oscars were first televised in by NBC , which continued to broadcast the event until , when ABC took over, televising the festivities including the first color broadcast of the event in through NBC regained the rights for five years —75 , then ABC resumed broadcast duties in and its current contract with the Academy runs through The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since , but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast.

By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by , the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries.

The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period.

Some years, the ceremony is moved into first Sunday of March in order to avoid clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover and Easter , which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public.

Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast.

After many years of being held on Mondays at 9: However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail.

Originally scheduled for 8 April , the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr.

Martin Luther King, Jr. In , an In Memoriam segment was introduced, [62] honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members.

In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. At the other end of the spectrum, the ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes.

This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" — overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion.

Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards have steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years although with increases in male and viewership , while the show itself also faced mixed reception.

Following the show, Variety reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself.

Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions.

Historically, the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy.

By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. In , the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.

From to , the ceremony alternated between two venues: Some years, the ceremony were at Shriners auditorium by USC.

In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories Drama and Comedy. From the s through the s, the Art Direction now Production Design , Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories black-and-white films and color films.

In August , the Academy announced that several categories would not be televised live, but rather be recorded during commercial breaks and aired later in the ceremony.

The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following categories have been proposed:. The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole.

They are not always presented on a consistent annual basis. Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, many studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the " Oscar season ".

This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than quality. William Friedkin , an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in , describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself".

Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight.

Typical criticism of the Academy Awards for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies, and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.

The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. This has led at times to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.

The Academy Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees. In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by the year Some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars.

Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards during his career. Scott became the second person to refuse his award Best Actor in for Patton at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony.

At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent actress and civil rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather to read a page speech detailing his criticisms.

Beatty had been given the wrong envelope and after hesitating during the announcement, handed the envelope to Dunaway, which listed Emma Stone as Best Actress for La La Land and led to the confusion.

The following year , Beatty and Dunaway were invited back as presenters of the Best Picture award, which they accomplished without error.

It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners.

Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status. The term "Oscar" is a registered trademark of the AMPAS; however, in the Italian language , it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American awards given annually for excellence in cinematic achievements. For other uses, see Oscar disambiguation.

List of Academy Awards ceremonies. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation.

Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 6 November Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 13 April Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 2 March Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 13 January Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 1 March Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 3 March Archived from the original on 15 January Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs".

Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 21 February PACSAT communicated with ground stations through a single downlink channel and a total of four uplink channels.

The multi-tasking operating system allows mailbox software and an AX. Only one cm downlink transmitter is active at any one time.

Due to performance degradation of the primary transmitter on All Microsats transmit using several watts of transmitter power making their signals easily received on the Earth below.

Several modem designs are available for Pacsat operation. The uplink receivers are very sensitive. During these periods, ground stations were encouraged to limit their uplink transmitter power to the minimum necessary to establish and maintain AX.

Usually the transmitter power level was on the order of just a few watts. Whole Orbit Data WOD collections was also performed by AO, and WOD files were available through the mailbox for all those who were interested in processing and analyzing spacecraft telemetry.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

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