Einstern klasse 1

einstern klasse 1

Einstern · Mathematik für KinderAusgabe · Band 1Themenhefte und 1 . Klasse. Verlag. Cornelsen Verlag. Autor/-in. Bauer, Roland; Maurach, Jutta. Einsterns Schwester - Erstlesen - Neubearbeitung: 1. Weitere Informationen finden Sie auf diesen Seiten: deutsch 1. klasse, schreiben lernen 1. klasse. Einstern · Mathematik für KinderNeubearbeitung · Band 1Themenhefte 1. Klasse. Verlag. Cornelsen Verlag. Autor/-in. Bauer, Roland; Maurach, Jutta.

A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed.

It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction , and the friction takes away a little energy all the time.

If we ignore the losses due to friction, then the energy provided by the horse is given to the cannonball as potential energy. It has energy because it is up high and can fall down.

As the cannonball swings down it gains more and more speed, so the nearer the bottom it gets the faster it is going and the harder it would hit you if you stood in front of it.

Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same.

It cannot be made or destroyed. This rule is called the "conservation law of energy". For example, when you throw a ball, the energy is transferred from your hand to the ball as you release it.

But the energy that was in your hand, and now the energy that is in the ball, is the same number. For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about.

When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. When mass transforms into energy, the amount of energy also does not remain the same.

However, the amount of matter and energy remains the same. Mass is the amount of matter there is in some body. If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons.

Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible. Masses pull on each other, and a very large mass such as that of the Earth pulls very hard on things nearby.

You would weigh much more on Jupiter than on Earth because Jupiter is so huge. You would weigh much less on the Moon because it is only about one-sixth the mass of Earth.

Weight is related to the mass of the brick or the person and the mass of whatever is pulling it down on a spring scale — which may be smaller than the smallest moon in the solar system or larger than the Sun.

Mass, not weight, can be transformed into energy. Another way of expressing this idea is to say that matter can be transformed into energy.

Units of mass are used to measure the amount of matter in something. The mass or the amount of matter in something determines how much energy that thing could be changed into.

Energy can also be transformed into mass. If you were pushing a baby buggy at a slow walk and found it easy to push, but pushed it at a fast walk and found it harder to move, then you would wonder what was wrong with the baby buggy.

Then if you tried to run and found that moving the buggy at any faster speed was like pushing against a brick wall, you would be very surprised.

The truth is that when something is moved then its mass is increased. Human beings ordinarily do not notice this increase in mass because at the speed humans ordinarily move the increase in mass in almost nothing.

As speeds get closer to the speed of light, then the changes in mass become impossible not to notice. The basic experience we all share in daily life is that the harder we push something like a car the faster we can get it going.

But when something we are pushing is already going at some large part of the speed of light we find that it keeps gaining mass, so it gets harder and harder to get it going faster.

It is impossible to make any mass go at the speed of light because to do so would take infinite energy. Sometimes a mass will change to energy.

Common examples of elements that make these changes we call radioactivity are radium and uranium. An atom of uranium can lose an alpha particle the atomic nucleus of helium and become a new element with a lighter nucleus.

Then that atom will emit two electrons, but it will not be stable yet. It will emit a series of alpha particles and electrons until it finally becomes the element Pb or what we call lead.

By throwing out all these particles that have mass it has made its own mass smaller. It has also produced energy. In most radioactivity, the entire mass of something does not get changed to energy.

In an atomic bomb, uranium is transformed into krypton and barium. There is a slight difference in the mass of the resulting krypton and barium, and the mass of the original uranium, but the energy that is released by the change is huge.

The c 2 in the equation stands for the speed of light squared. About 60 terajoules were released by the atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima.

The idea of a Bose-Einstein condensate came out of a collaboration between S. Einstein himself did not invent it but, instead, refined the idea and helped it become popular.

In classical physics, momentum is explained by the equation:. When Einstein generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components.

One component involves "rest mass" and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way.

The equation typically has values greater than zero for both components:. A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum.

Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured. This famous "mass-energy relation" formula usually written without the "0"s suggests that mass has a large amount of energy, so maybe we could convert some mass to a more useful form of energy.

The nuclear power industry is based on that idea. The General Theory of Relativity was published in , ten years after the special theory of relativity was created.

Spacetime is the fact that we have a four-dimensional universe, having three spatial space dimensions and one temporal time dimension.

Any physical event happens at some place inside these three space dimensions, and at some moment in time. According to the general theory of relativity, any mass causes spacetime to curve, and any other mass follows these curves.

Bigger mass causes more curving. This was a new way to explain gravitation gravity. General relativity explains gravitational lensing, which is light bending when it comes near a massive object.

General relativity also set the stage for cosmology theories of the structure of our universe at large distances and over long times.

Einstein thought that the universe may curve a little bit in both space and time, so that the universe always had existed and always will exist, and so that if an object moved through the universe without bumping into anything, it would return to its starting place, from the other direction, after a very long time.

He even changed his equations to include a "cosmological constant," in order to allow a mathematical model of an unchanging universe.

The general theory of relativity also allows the universe to spread out grow larger and less dense forever, and most scientists think that astronomy has proved that this is what happens.

When Einstein realized that good models of the universe were possible even without the cosmological constant, he called his use of the cosmological constant his "biggest blunder," and that constant is often left out of the theory.

However, many scientists now believe that the cosmological constant is needed to fit in all that we now know about the universe.

A popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed 15 billion years ago, in what is called a " gravitational singularity ".

This singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today came out of this point.

Einstein himself did not have the idea of a " black hole ", but later scientists used this name for an object in the universe that bends spacetime so much that not even light can escape it.

They think that these ultra-dense objects are formed when giant stars, at least three times the size of our sun, die.

This event can follow what is called a supernova. At the end of , Albert took his terminally-ill mother out of the sanatorium in Luzern and brought her to Haberlandstrasse 5, Berlin, to stay with him and his second wife, Elsa, where she later died.

He had six siblings: At the age of 14, Hermann attended the secondary school in the regional capital Stuttgart and was academically successful.

He had a strong affection for mathematics , and would have liked to study in this or a related area, but as the financial situation of the family precluded further education, he decided to become a merchant and began an apprenticeship in Stuttgart.

After their wedding, the young couple lived in Ulm , where Hermann became joint partner in the feather bed shop of his cousins, Moses and Hermann Levi.

In Ulm , their eldest son Albert was born on 14 March They were instrumental in bringing electricity to Munich. In , they won the contract that provided DC lights to illuminate the Oktoberfest for the first time.

They were forced to sell their Munich factory and, in search of business, the two brothers moved their company to Pavia , Italy in Hermann, Pauline and Maja moved to Milan in the same year and one year later moved to Pavia.

Due to poor business, Hermann and Jakob had to abandon their factory in He was supported financially by his relatives in this venture.

Though business was better this time, Hermann was preoccupied with "worries due to the vexatious money".

He moved back to Germany in Hermann Einstein died of heart failure in Milan in Albert Einstein and his family moved to Berlin in His father remarried in and in the s emigrated to the United States under the threat of the German Nazi regime.

Eduard was a good student and had musical talent. After gymnasium , he started to study medicine to become a psychiatrist , but by the age of twenty he was diagnosed with schizophrenia.

He was institutionalized two years later for the first of several times. Biographers of his father have speculated that the drugs and "cures" of the time damaged rather than aided the young Einstein.

After a breakdown, Eduard had told his father that he hated him. Albert Einstein emigrated to the United States from Germany in after the rise of the Nazi German government and never saw his son again.

Eduard remained interested in music and art, [18] wrote poetry, [19] and was a Sigmund Freud enthusiast. He hung a picture of Freud on his bedroom wall.

His mother cared for him until she died in She was born 18 November in Munich. Maja and Albert got along very well all their lives.

She attended elementary school in Munich from to She then moved with her parents to Milan, where she attended the German International School ; Albert had stayed behind with relatives in Munich to complete his schooling.

From to , she attended a workshop for teachers in Aarau. After she passed her final exams, she studied Romance languages and literature in Berlin, Bern and Paris.

In , she graduated from University of Bern , her dissertation was entitled "Contribution to the Tradition of the Chevalier au Cygne and the Enfances Godefroi".

In the year following her graduation, she married Paul Winteler, but they were to be childless. In , they moved to Colonnata near Florence in Italy.

I am amazed that so many people would dismiss the whole series as "all sex and no substance. He is slow to warm to the idea of a State of Israel but he does help in fund raising for it, advises on the establishment of its first University and was considered for the presidency of this new country.

I found the visualization and explanation of some of his insights very helpful. I found him to be funny, thoughtful, collaborative, religious, political and definitely "an original.

Read the book if you are interested in "the whole story" of Einstein the man. Be frustrated with the movie if you are looking for a simplified explanation of his scientific studies.

Stay away from it, if you see no need for any of the sex scenes or political involvement. Plus, we hear why more than one celeb wants to be snowed in with Idris Elba.

See our favorite Sundance moments. Visit Prime Video to explore more titles. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

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